1 NIDA, National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, Vol.II Johnston L., et al, U. of Michigan, 2013
3 Ray Daugherty and Terry O’Bryan, On Campus Talking About Alcohol, (currently called Prime for Life) Lexington, KY: Prevention Research Institute, 1989.
5 Data generated from Core Alcohol and Drug Survey, Core Institute, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 2013..
6 Prevention For College Students Who Suffer Alcohol-Induced Blackouts Could Deter High-Cost Emergency Department Visits; Health Affairs April 2012 31:4863-870
7 Jane Brody, New York Times, Monday, December 27, 1978.
9 Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges (Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 2002).
10 Sullivan M, Risler E. Understanding College Alcohol Abuse and Academic Performance: Selecting Appropriate Intervention Strategies. Journal of College Counseling Fall 2002: 5 (2): 114-124.
11 Elizabeth Parker, Isabel Birenbaum, Rosemary Boyd and Ernest Noble, “Neuropsychologic decrements as a function of alcohol intake in male students,” Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 4: 330-334, 1980.
12 Data generated from Core Alcohol and Drug Survey, Core Institute, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 2013.
13 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, (2008). Traffic Safety Facts 2008, Washington, DC: National Center for Statistics and Analysis, U.S. Department of Transportation. Available at
14 Daugherty and O’Bryan, OCTAA, (currently called Prime for Life) 1989.
15 M.S. Gold, “Alcohol, drugs and sexual dysfunction,” Alcoholism and Addiction 9:13, 1988. (cited in Raymond Goldberg, Drugs Across the Spectrum, St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.: 1994)
16 Philip Meilman, “Alcohol-Induced Sexual Behavior on Campus,” Journal of American College Health 42, July 1993, 27-31.
17 Grossbard, et al., 2007; Scott-Sheldon, Cary, & Cary, 2008
18 Philip Meilman, “Alcohol-Induced Sexual Behavior on Campus,” Journal of American College Health 42, July 1993, 27-31.
19 Mark Pang, Elizabeth Wells-Parker, and David McMillen, “Drinking Reasons, Drinking Locations, and Automobile Accidents Among Collegians,” International Journal of the Addictions 24, no. 3, 215-227, 1989.
20 Rethinking Rites of Passage.
21 Knowledge Network; 2011 College Dating Violence and Abuse Poll; Online survey
22 National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc.; Alcohol, Drugs and Crime; 2007
23 Palmer CJ. “Violence and Other Forms of Victimization in Residence Halls: Perspectives of Resident Assistants.” Journal of College Student Development 1996; 37(3): 268-278.
24 Campus vandalism: It's more than graffiti on the wall; Phillip, M, Black Issues in Higher Education, 10, 30-31., (1993)
25 Binge Drinking and Violence among College Students: Sensitivity to Correlation in the Unobservables; Lisa M. Powell, PhD., Christina U. Czart Ciecierski, PhD Frank J. Chaloupka, PhD., Henry Wechsler, PhD; 2002
26 Baum K, Klaus P. (2005). Violent Victimization of College Students, 1995-2002. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report: National Crime Victimization Survey. Retrieved December 13, 2011, from
27 Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. (2008). Interpersonal Violence and Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Retrieved December 13, 2011, from
28 Rivinus TM, Larimer ME. “Violence, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and the College Student.” Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 1993; 8(1/2): 71-119.14.
29 Smith MC. College Liability Resulting From Campus Crime: Resurrection for In Loco Parentis? West’s Education Law Report 1990; 59(1): 1-5.
30 US Department of Justice; Office of Justice Programs; Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College Age Females, 1995-2013
31 Abbey A. “Acquaintance Rape and Alcohol Consumption on College Campuses: How Are They Linked?” Journal of American College Health 1991; 39:165-169.)
32 Berkowitz A. “College Men as Perpetrators of Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Assault: A Review of Recent Research.” Journal of American College Health 1993 40(4):175-181.
33 Koss, MP; Gidycz, Caand Wisnewski, “The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1987, 55:162-170.
34 Abbey A. “Acquaintance Rape and Alcohol Consumption on College Campuses: How Are they Linked?” Journal of American College Health 1991; 39: 165-169
35 Quackenbush RI. “Attitudes of College Men Toward Women and Rape.” Journal of College Student Development 1991; 32(4): 376, 377.)36 Krebs A, Lindquist C, Warner T, Fisher B, Martin S; The Campus Sexual Assault Study; Department of Justice; December 2007
37 Berkowitz A. “College Men as Perpetrators of Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Assault: A Review of Recent Research.” Journal of American College Health 1992; 40(4): 175-181
38 Martin PY. Hummer RA. “Fraternities and Rape on Campus.” In: Bart PB, Moran K. (eds.) Violence Against Women: The Bloody Footprints. Newbury Park, CA:Sage Publications Inc,; 1993: chap 8.
39 Berkowitz A. “College Men as Perpetrators of Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Assault: A Review of Recent Research.” Journal of American College Health 1993 40(4):175-181.
40 Koss, MP; Gidycz, Caand Wisnewski, “The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1987, 55:162-170.
41 “Rape: It Happens to Guys” (Flyer), Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape Harrisburg, PA. Rethinking Rites of Passage.39 Kaye Fillmore, “Relationship between specific drinking problems in early childhood and middle age; an exploratory 20-year follow-up,” Journal for Studies on Alcohol 36: 882-907, 1975.
42Alcoholism- statistices.com 2013
43 Remi J. Cadoret, “Psychopathology in adopted-away offspring of biologic parents with antisocial behavior.” Archives General Psychiatry, Vol. 35, February, 1978; Remi J. Cadoret and Ann Gath, “Inheritance of alcoholism in adoptees.” Journal of Psychology 132: 252-258, 1978. (Cited in Daugherty and O’Bryan, OCTAA.)
44 P. Propping, J. Kruger, and N. Mark, “Genetic Disposition to Alcoholism. An EEG study in alcoholics and their relatives,” Human Genetics 59:51-59, 1981; W.F. Gabrielli, S.A. Mednick, J. Volavka, et al. “Electroencephalograms in children of alcoholic fathers,” Psychophysiology 19:404-407, 1982. (Cited in Daugherty and O’Bryan, OCTAA.)
45 Marc Schuckit and Vidamantas Rayses, “Ethanol ingestion: differences in blood acetaldehyde concentration, relatives of alcoholics and controls,” Science 203: 54-55, 1979. (Cited in Daugherty and O’Bryan, OCTAA.)
46 H.E. Utne, F. Vallo Hansen, K. Winkler and F. Schulsinger, “Alcohol elimination rates in adoptees with and without alcoholic parents,” Journal for Studies on Alcohol 38: 1219-1223, 1977. (Cited in Daugherty and O’Bryan, OCTAA.)
47 Lewis Eigen. “Alcohol Practices, Policies and Potentials of American Colleges and Universities.” U.S. Public Health Service. 1991. (Cited in Alcohol Issues Insights. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2-3, April 1991.
48 Alcohol Issues Insights. January 1993.
49 H. Wechsler, Binge Drinking on American College Campuses: A New Look at an Old Problem, Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, 1995
50 Brian Borsari, John T.P. Hustad, Christy Capone; Alcohol Use in the Greek System 1999-2009.
51 Brian Borsari, John T.P. Hustad, Christy Capone; Alcohol Use in the Greek System 1999-2009.
52 American Psychological Association; Young Women May be Drinking Heavily to Get Attention of Opposite Sex, But Men Not Impressed; March 11, 2009
53 Johnson, “Sports and Suds,” Sports Illustrated, pp. 69-82, August 8, 1988. (Cited in Cornelius and Norton, Images About Alcohol.)
54 The BACCHUS Peer Education Network: Personal Best, Positive Performance for Athletes, Denver, CO, 1992 (See Resource List.)
55 The College of William and Mary, Alcohol and Drugs vs. Athletic Performance, Williamsburg, VA, 1990.
56 BACCHUS, Personal Best.
57 Bottom Line on Alcohol in Society, Vol. 13, no.1, Spring, 1992, 8-10. (Cited in Cornelius and Norton, Images About Alcohol.)
58 Adweek, 17, April 13, 1992.
59 Emanuel Rubin and Charles Lieber, “Alcohol-induced hepatic injury in non-alcoholic volunteers.” The New England Journal of Medicine 278: 869-976, 1968
60 Healthy People 2000, National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, September 1990, cited in Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, Bulletin: Take a Look at College Drinking, April 1992.
61 Kuo, Meichun, Henry Wechsler, Patty Greenberg, and Hang Lee. "ScienceDirect - American Journal of Preventive Medicine : The marketing of alcohol to college students: The role of low prices and special promotions." ScienceDirect - Home. (October 17, 2011)
62 The Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS) has conducted 4 national surveys involving over 14,000 students at 120 four-year colleges in 40 states in 1993, 1997, 1999, and 2001. The schools and students selected for the study provide a nationally representative sample. In addition, CAS colleges with high levels of heavy alcohol use were resurveyed in 2005. CAS has been supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
63 Rethinking Rites of Passage
64 Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Alcohol Brand References in U.S. Popular Music, 2009–2011
65 Join Together 8/8/11 Beer Sales Becoming More Popular at College Football Games.
66 Statements issued by former Surgeon General Antonia Novello, March 14, 1993.
67 Penny Norton and Sam Cornelius, Images About Alcohol, Midland, MI: Bradford-LaRiviere, Inc., 1991.
68 Core Alcohol and Drug Survey, Cheryl Presley, Philip Meilman, Rob Tyerla, Jami Leichliter; Core Institute, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL. 2013
69 Cynthia Kuhn, Ph.D., Scott Swartzwelder, Ph.D., Wilkie Wilson, Ph.D., Buzzed, W.W. Norton & Co., New York and London;1998
70 Henry Wechsler, Ph.D., Bryn Austin, William DeJong; “Secondary Effects of Binge Drinking on College Campuses,” The Higher Education Center Bulletin, February, 1996
71 Cheryl Presley, Jami Leichliter;Southern Illinois University Student Core Institute; Core Survey 2014 , Carbondale, IL.
72 Frank Bumpus, “Everyone may not be getting blasted,” The Linfield Review, November 9, 1990.
73 Will Keim, Ph.D., The Education of Character; Harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York, 1995
74 Rethinking Rites of Passage
1000 Remarkable Facts About Alcohol by Richard Erdoes is the source for the historical information regarding alcohol consumption. Permission for use was granted by Smithmark Publications, Inc.; New York, NY.